Hematite is a mineral, which contains a lot of iron, colored black to silver-gray, brown to reddish brown or red. It is mined as the main ore of iron. Varieties include kidney ore, martite (pseudo morphs after magnetite), iron rose and specularite (specular hematite). While the forms of hematite vary, they all have a rust-red streak. Hematite is harder than pure iron, but much more brittle. Magnetite is a hematite- and magnetite-related oxide mineral. Formed in the oxidation conditions, hematite deposit is huge and associated with hydrothermal activity or sedimentation. Hematite is a metamorphosed sedimentary iron ore, which is mainly composed of magnetite, hematite, martite, and intergrowth with quartz, chlorite and so on. The contact metamorphic type hematite lives with magnetite, chalcopyrite, main symbiotic bornite, magnetic pyrite and garnet, diopside, phlogopite etc. In nature, magnetite and hematite can be transformed into each other. When the oxygen fugacity increases, magnetite can be oxidized to hematite; if still retain the original magnetite crystal, called martite. If only part of magnetite to hematite, it is called false hematite. When oxygen fugacity decreases, hematite and magnetite can be reduced; if retained the Hematite crystal, it is called the mu hematite.
Hematite is one of the most important economically minerals. Hematite is accessory minerals, which are widely distributed in a variety of rocks, the subdivision of particulate appeared in many igneous rocks. In special cases, it forms a huge block in the regional metamorphic rocks. In the red sandstone, hematite is cement of quartz particles, and the rock is colored. If it can be mined economically, it must contain tens of millions of tons of hematite. The reserves are causing a lot of scale deposition. There are a lot of the iron in the Precambrian strata, they usually contains impurities, such as silicon. And the exploitation of hematite deposit can be largely found in every continent. In 1961 the Soviet Union replaced the USA and became the largest producer of hematite. USA became the second followed by France, Canada, Chinese, Sweden and Australia. In USA, since the end of the nineteenth Century, the largest producing minerals place is Precambrian rocks in the Great Lakes region. Single crystal is often rhomb-shaped surface body and plate, aggregate morphological diversity, flake (phanerocrystalline), granular, oolitic, reniform, earthy, dense block etc. Phanerocrystalline is iron to steel grey, aphanitic dark red streaks, cherry red, metallic and semi metallic luster, which Mohs hardness is 5.5-6.5, no cleavage, the proportion of 5.0-5.3. It is iron black, shiny metal flaky hematite aggregates called Specularite; scaly gray, metallic luster of hematite aggregates known as mica hematite; reddish brown, shiny dark called ochre; a oolitic or kidney shaped hematite called oolitic hematite or kidney shaped. Hematite iron ore is very widespread in nature, which is an important raw material for iron making. It can also be used as a red pigment. The most important hematite ore deposit is a metamorphic origin; there are also some hydrothermal formations, or weathering and colloid formation of precipitates in large basin.
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