We all know there are a lot of waste material has to be processed by crusher in the metallurgical, mining, chemical, cement and other industrial sectors. As an indispensable equipment for the production of aggregates, crusher can make the material crushing work easy. But do we really understand the history of the crusher?
As early as the primitive era, there had appeared simple crushing equipment. With the development of human civilization, this simple crusher has also experienced the evolution from manual to steam era to mechanical intelligence. That’s to say there is a modern industrial evolution on crusher.
As early as 2,000 B.C, China had the most smashing tool —Chu Jiu, a major cereal husking tool. And it evolved into a pedal (200 B.C to 100 B.C) later. Although these tools can't come up with current electric equipment, they have the prototype of crusher and their way of breaking is still intermittent.
The Animal power mill was continuously crushing tools as crusher used by the humanity in the earliest period. The other is roll milling (appearing later than animal’s).
Until two hundred years later, on the basis of these two tools, Du Yu, an ancient Chinese people, had developed water mill with hydraulic power as driving force to improve crushing efficiency to a new level. In addition to being used for grain processing, these tools are gradually extended to the comminution of other materials.
The Animal power mill
Before the 19th century, countries around the world still used the original manual for material crushing and screening. With the advancement of society and technology, this original manual mode has been far from meeting the needs of production development.
But the arrival of the steam and electrical era has changed everything.
People began to know about machines, and began to develop crushing and screening equipment to replace manual labor.
In 1806, a roller crusher driven by a steam engine appeared.
The steam era crusher on the rally
In 1858, E.W.Black, American, invented a jaw crusher for broken rock.
The world's first jaw crusher designed and manufactured by American E.W. Black
Jaw crusher’s structure is double bracket type (simple swing type). Since it has advantages of simple structure, easy manufacture and maintenance, reliable work, small volume and height, it is still widely used in crushing various materials, such as a variety of ore, solvent, slag, building stone, and marble and so on.
By 1878, Americans had invented a continuous crushing action of the rotary crusher; its production efficiency is much higher than intermittent crushing action of the jaw crusher.
The American-invented rotary crusher
In 1895, American William invented the impact crusher with lower energy consumption.
With the continuous development of productivity, jaw crusher cannot fully meet the needs of crushing technology. Therefore, people have designed a more efficient impact crusher.
The development of impact crusher can be traced back to the 1950s, when the structure of the crusher was similar to that of the modern squirrel cage crusher, it possess some impact crusher features both structure and working principle.
Until 1924, the Germans first developed a single- and double-rotor impact crusher.
In 1942, based on the structural features and working principle of squirrel cage crusher, Andreson invented the AP series of impact crusher which is similar to modern impact crusher.
The machine can handle relatively large materials with high production efficiency. Its simple structure is better for maintenance, so this type of impact crusher has been rapidly developed.
By 1948, an American company developed a hydraulic cone crusher, which has been used in industrial fields ever since.
The world's first cone crusher was originally made by Symons brother (Symons cone crusher). The spindle is inserted into the eccentric locking collars and driven by the eccentric locking collars to move the movable cone pendulum. By movable cone liner moving back and forth, ore rock is crushed and bent continuously in crushing chamber.
Hydraulic Cone Crusher
With the increasing perfection of crushing theory and the further development of science and technology, various kinds of high performance crushers emerge one after another.They greatly improved crushing efficiency.
Different industries have different product requirements so there has appeared a variety of crushing machinery according to different working principles, such as vibration mill, sand mill, and colloidal mill.
As early as 1970s, large gyratory crushers with an output of 5,000 tons per hour and a material diameter of 2,000 millimeters were developed.
At the same time, in order to enhance the mobility of crusher, the mobile crushing and screening plant had been developed, which can work flexibility in the fast transfer field and be extremely popular.
China didn't start having crusher until the 1950s. Domestic impact crushers were limited to medium and hard materials such as coal and limestone before1980s. Until the end of 1980s, China introduced KHD type hard rock impact crusher, which filled the domestic blank of crusher. But it’s still behind many in developed countries for more than 20 years.
Domestic fixed crushing screening production line
However, after the 21st century, China crushing equipment ushered in an extremely rapid development and the gap between China and international advanced level gradually narrowing. China was basically formed a complete manufacturing system (independent development and production) on crusher which is widely used in mining, road construction, chemical metallurgy and other fields. At the same time, the crushing machinery accessories industry is bound to usher in a new development.