From the experience of green mine construction, the total industrial output value and comprehensive utilization output value of production mines will be greatly improved after green upgrading and transformation. Green mine construction is a short-term investment and long-term benefit. Green mine construction mainly has the following four tasks:
Mining area environment
The environmental construction of the mining area continues the whole life cycle of the mine construction, which is very important to the mine production. When designing the mine, the functions of the mining area should be rationally divided into zones, the mining area should be greened and beautified, the overall environment should be kept clean and orderly and the management of raw material mining, processing, transportation, storage and other links should be standardized.
(1)Mining area beautification and functional zoning design. Carry out landscape garden design for office area, living area and maintenance area, planning and utilization of scattered areas, reflecting functionality and aesthetics, meeting visual needs, environmental and ecological needs, and psychological needs of public behavior. Semi-automatic car washing area is set halfway between office area and living area and stope to reduce dust pollution caused by stope equipment and vehicles. The environmental effect of the mining area is shown in Figure 1.
(2)Complete signage. Make and install all kinds of signs, warning signs, introduction signs, and route diagrams. Mines should set up mining right signs at the entrance of the factory area, and set up the route schematic signs at the main road entrances in the mining area; make management system signs in each functional department; set up post operation technical operation rules in the crushing workshop, power distribution room, mining group office and other areas; set up safety signs in areas that need to be warned, such as blasting safety cordons, feed openings, etc., and reliable fences or striking signs should be set up at the boundary of open-pit mines, and electronic fences can be set up in mines with conditions to prevent unrelated personnel from mistakenly enter.
(3) Road hardening. In order to reduce dust and transport vehicles with mud on the road, cement concrete pavement will be hardened on the mining road, and greening work will be carried out on both sides of the road to improve the surrounding environmental quality and reduce road dust.
(4) Prevention and control of mine geological disasters. Mines should improve the safety monitoring content of stope slopes, monitor the slope surface displacement for newly formed final steps, and add blasting vibration particle velocity monitoring, groundwater level monitoring, and rainfall monitoring and video monitoring.
The online monitoring system should include functions such as automatic collection, transmission, storage, comprehensive analysis and early warning of inspection data, and is suitable for monitoring operations under severe weather conditions. High-slope mines should sort out the monitoring data at least once a year, and invite professional Personnel conducts comprehensive analysis of data.
Resource development and utilization
According to the requirements of the specification, the development of mineral resources should be coordinated with environmental protection, and the disturbance to the surrounding natural environment should be minimized. Exploration and production should use the advanced technology and equipment, at the same time mining should according to the principle of "mining, while governance", timely restore the geological environment in mines, mine reclamation production occupied land and forest land.
(1) Prepare a medium and long-term mining plan for the mine. With the help of the 3D digital mine software platform, combined with various factors such as mine resource status, cement price, ore mining and processing costs, operating technical conditions, etc., on the basis of determining the final slope of the open-pit mine, a long-term mining plan of the open-pit mine with 3D visualization is prepared.
Mining exploitation should strictly implement the mineral development and utilization plan or mining plan. Open-pit mining must be carried out in a step-like manner. The production steps, platforms, and final platforms must be standardized, and the slopes must be stable.
(2)Ore processing. The crushing workshop shall adopt fully enclosed protective measures, and the main road surface shall be fully hardened.
(3) Mine transportation. For mine truck transportation, a closed cover device should be installed; the transportation vehicle should be cleaned out of factory; the road surface should be sprinkled with water to reduce dust.
(4) Restoring the ecological environment of mines. In order to ensure the overall ecological function of the area and coordinate with the surrounding natural environment and landscape, the mine rock slopes are sprayed and greened in the geological disaster area and the final steps of the mining area. Plant grass and green on the two step slopes at the bottom of the existing dump to reduce soil erosion and the workload of dump cleaning.
(5) Implement dynamic monitoring of environmental protection. In order to grasp the dust, noise, temperature, humidity, wind direction, wind speed, pressure and other conditions of the mine, an online environmental monitoring system is installed in the office and living areas, crushing stations, mine roads, and stopes, so as to fully display the pollution concentration on the site.
Energy conservation and emissions reduction
(1) Energy saving and consumption reduction. Enterprises should establish an accounting system for energy consumption, water consumption and material consumption in the whole process of the mine, eliminate high energy consumption, high pollution and low efficiency processes and equipment, ensure that the energy consumption indicators meet the requirements of the national regulations, use frequency conversion equipment and energy-saving lighting as far as possible, and transport materials and crushed stone by belt conveyor.
(2) Reduce the discharge of waste pollutants. Change the traditional waste disposal mode, change "governance" into use, and change "waste" into "treasure". Take measures to reduce the discharge of dust, noise, waste water, and waste gas, waste rock, waste residue and other pollutants, try to use new means of transportation, use clean energy, and try to dispose of solid waste in mining pits.
Technological innovation and digital mine
(1) Increase investment in science and technology. Improve the innovation incentive mechanism and strengthen the innovation ability of the innovation team.
(2) Equip and train scientific and technological talents. The mine needs to be equipped with major professional and technical personnel in geology, surveying, mining, processing, safety, environmental protection, etc., to ensure that the mining personnel are complete.
(3) Digital mines. The mine should formulate a digital mine construction plan to realize the informatization of production, operation and management.