Given the components and associated elements, manganese ore can be classified into two kinds---manganese carbonate ore and oxidized manganese ore. The main minerals in manganese carbonate ore are rhodochrosite, calcium rhodochrosite, tetalite and oligonite. The gangue has silicate, carbonate and some impurities including sulfur and iron. Manganese oxide ore includes psilomelane, pyrolusite and manganite.
The mineral components are complicated and the grain size of manganese can be as fine as several microns, so it is difficult to separate the ores to get high-grade concentrate.
As for manganese carbonate ore, strong magnetic separation, dense-media separation and floatation shall be considered. As for manganese sulfur-carbonate ore, flotation shall be taken priority to separate macker, pyrite and manganese successively. As for hydrothermal zinc-lead carbonate manganese ore, flotation and strong magnetic separation shall be adopted. As for manganese- sulfur ore, baking is used to remove sulfur. Some manganese ore also adopts baking to remove volatile ingredient to get finished product.
Because there is some iron, phosphate and gangue which coexists with manganese and is hard to be separated, smelting shall be adopted.
As for the beneficiation of manganese oxide ore, gravity separation is recommended. As for weathered manganese oxide ore, because of the existence of much slurry and fines, jigging and cleaning table can be used for secondary separation. For ore washing and spillover sometimes needs gravity separation and strong magnetic separation. For some deposited native manganese oxide ore, dense-media separation and jigging are used to remove gangue and to get blocky concentrate.