The manganese ore can be mainly divided into manganese carbonate ore and manganese oxidized ore on the basis of the material composition and accompanying elements of the ore.
The main minerals of the manganese carbonate ore are manganese spar, ropperite, manganocalcite and oligonite etc; Gangue minerals include silicate and silicate minerals with accompanying impurities like sulfur and iron etc. The ore composition is complicated and the manganese mineral dissemination size is as fine as several micrometers and is hard to be separated to get high grade of concentrate. The manganese minerals in the manganese oxide are mainly psilomelane, pyrolusite and hydromanganite etc. and the gangue minerals are mainly silicate minerals and carbonate minerals with accompanying iron, phosphate, nickel and cobalt etc.
The beneficiation for manganese carbonate ore adopts mostly strong magnetic separation, heavy media separation and floatation etc. For the sedimentary manganese carbonate ore containing sulfur, floatation process is normally prioritized based on the sequence of macker, pyrite and manganese minerals. The hydrothermal type of manganese carbonate ore containing lead and zinc is normally separated by floatation-strong magnetic separation process. For some ores containing sulfur and rich in manganese, the manganese mineral is mainly alabandite. Roasting method is normally used to remove sulfur. Some manganese carbonate-enriched ore adopts roasting method too in the production to remove volatile component to get finished ore.
The manganese carbonate ore contains some refractory ore, in which the manganese and iron, the phosphate and gangue associate each other closely with extremely fine dissemination size which is hard to separate. Melting methods can be considered for treatment.
The beneficiation for manganese oxide focuses on gravity separation. Weathering type of manganese oxide ore normally contains large amount of ore pulp and ore fines, and ore washing-gravity separation is adopted in production. Some net ore gained from raw ore through ore washing can be used as finished ore while some needs to be re-separated by jigging and table etc. The ore washing overflow shall be sometimes further collected by gravity separation or strong magnetic separation etc. Due to exploitation dilution, some sedimentary native manganese oxide ore adopts heavy media separation and jigging separation to remove gangue in the production so as to obtain lumpy concentrate.